The growth of China’s manufacturing base over the last thirty years has been nothing short of phenomenal. The almost overnight change in a country’s manufacturing capability had never been see before and may never be seen again. Much of that growth was based on increasing trade with other countries by offering lower pricing. In fact, over the period of China’s manufacturing development, its primary customer has been the U.S. China’s industrial goal has never been to be a worldwide source of cheap goods. Rather, their plan was to use that role as the base for what their economic goals have been all along. Specifically, to supplant the U.S. as the world’s major economic force. They are already well on their way to doing so and have plans going forward to make this a reality. The trade relationship between the U.S. and China has changed relatively quickly due to our country’s tariffs on their goods and the impact COVID – 19 has had on world trade. Yet, the U.S. continues as the primary buyer of Chinese goods and as such, their primary financial driver of China’s policy. This situation is currently out-of-sync with government trade policy and exposes our country’s manufacturing base to ongoing risk. Dr. McKinney will first given a short background on how the China – U.S. trade relationship has reach the stage it is in today, then will delve deeply into the threats China’s economic plans present to the U.S. economy. He will then propose several strategies to help U.S. manufacturers mediate these risks.